To preserve and increase their savings, many clients carry money on deposits to the bank. This is the most conservative investment method that does not require special knowledge and training. It is enough to come to the bank, choose a convenient deposit (with or without the option of replenishment, with partial withdrawal, with or without capitalization, etc.), sign an agreement and hand over the money to the cashier. After the specified period, you can come and get back the invested funds with accrued income.
More advanced clients prefer to split their investments into different financial instruments, such as compulsory medical insurance, mutual funds, investment life insurance, housing insurance, buying and selling shares on the stock market, etc. These products have higher risks compared to deposits, but the effect of the investment is much greater.
Despite the protection of deposits by the state (investments are insured), this method of investment is not the most profitable and helps, at a minimum, to maintain the purchasing power of money, but does not increase it. Consider why you should not make deposits in banks and the reasons for this
Risk 1 – Inflation.
This is a process present in almost every country’s economy, especially Russia. Under its influence, there is a depreciation of money and a decrease in their purchasing power. For example, if in 2010 it was possible to buy 4 packs of milk for 100 rubles, now only 2. This means the purchasing power of the amount of 100 rubles. decreased by half.
At the beginning of 2016, the inflation rate was declared at 15%, although the media spoke of 6-8%. The average %% of deposits since the beginning of the year did not exceed 11%. Given this situation, we can say that the savings of customers depreciated by 4%:
Savings growth = Deposit rate – % inflation = 11% – 15% = -4%
Consider an example: a contributor makes a contribution of 500 tr. at 11% for 1 year. In a year he will receive:
Income \u003d 500,000 * 11% \u003d 55,000 rubles.
Taking into account inflation at the level of 15%, by the end of the year its amount will lose its nominal value by 15% and will amount to 425 thousand rubles:
Amount \u003d 500,000 – 500,000 * 15% \u003d 425,000 rubles.
Having received income at the end of the year in the form of 55 tr., invested 500 tr. in a nominal amount turn into 480 tr.:
Amount = 425,000 + 55,000 = 480,000 rubles.
Thus, this investment not only did not bring income but also led to a purchasing loss. Banks are in no hurry to offer high rates, so the best option is to diversify your savings. To do this, you can consider options for investing in currencies, metals, stocks, etc. This will compensate for losses and bring real income.
Risk 2 – Bank failure.
News about the revocation of licenses, bankruptcy, or reorganization of banks has become commonplace in recent times. The Central Bank is actively rehabilitating the financial sector, which is flooded with banking organizations. Today, more than 700 banks of various sizes operating in Russia.
When checking them, facts of violation of laws, illegal activities, money laundering, poor financial condition, risky activities in the stock market are revealed. All this leads to ordinary clients suffering, who bring savings to this institution at a high percentage. High bank deposit rates are not always really profitable. They mean that the bank is in dire need of cash flow and therefore offers a tempting interest. The funds raised are used to cover expenses or fulfill obligations.
The most difficult thing begins when you need to return the funds taken, but there is nowhere to take them from. In this case, the bank declares itself bankrupt and asks for help from the Central Bank. In response, the Central Bank can send a tranche to fulfill obligations, but most often a reorganization (financial recovery) procedure is carried out, when a temporary commission is appointed, which analyzes activities and offers options for a way out of the situation. If the analysis shows that it does not make sense to inject additional funds into this bank, that there are violations in the conduct of the banking business, then the Central Bank may revoke the license or launch the final bankruptcy procedure. During this period, investors suffer the most.
With this turn of events, an insured event occurs and payments begin through the DIA. There is also a limit on the amount – no more than 1.4 million rubles. Those depositors who gave the bank more money can only get back this amount. The rest will have to wait longer at best, or not returned at all at worst. After paying the sum insured, the depositor joins the general queue of creditors, waits for the launch of the bank liquidation procedure and the sale of the property. In practice, this all takes up to 5 years, and the proceeds are usually not enough to pay creditors.
Thus, placing large amounts in small banks at attractive rates is fraught with loss of money. Alternatively, you can place no more than the sum insured, so that later you can return it to yourself, or you can place the money in a more reliable bank, but at a small percentage. As in the previous version, it is worth considering other ways of investing.
Risk 3. Non-inclusion of the contribution in the registry.
Upon the occurrence of an insured event, the DIA starts paying out to depositors who are in the payout register. Recently, cases have become more frequent when depositors did not find themselves in this register, for which reason they were denied reimbursement.
This is because banks conduct operations on deposits on balance accounts or in the so-called “notebooks”. After the license is revoked, such a depositor will have to independently prove the presence of a deposit in the bank by filing a lawsuit with the provision of a deposit agreement, statements, credit orders. If the documents are lost for some reason, and the bank did not include them in the register, then it will be impossible to prove something in court.
Non-inclusion in the register for reimbursement is due to the illegal activities of banks that make fictitious deposits and maintain them in the wrong accounts. Only official reporting is submitted to the DIA. If earlier the DIA included a client in the register after providing supporting documents, now this is done only by a court decision.
You need to apply to the court for inclusion in the register not at the DIA, but the bank. According to 177 FZ, the DIA does not violate the law by not paying compensation to a depositor who is not in the register from the bank. The set of documents includes:
deposit agreement. The form is not strictly regulated, the presence of a seal is not required. According to Art. 160 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, only the signatures of the parties to the transaction are sufficient. The most important thing is to check the correctness of the specified data, make sure that the organization is a bank and a member of the deposit insurance system.
Receipt orders. Their form is standard for all banks. They must be affixed with the seal of the cashier and the signature of the cashier.
Payment order. It is formed if the deposit was opened by bank transfer. It is important here that the appointment contains the wording “Replenishment of the bank deposit account under agreement No. ХХХХ dated XX.XX.ХХХХ date. If a simple transfer of funds is indicated, then the document will no longer be valid to prove the presence of a deposit.
Account statements with money movements (deposits, withdrawals, balances at the end of periods, etc.)
Information about the presence of a deposit. Depositors usually receive this document for processing documents for visas, passports, etc.
It is worth noting that the decision to include depositors in the register through the court is because even the presence of the above documents does not confirm the existence of a deposit, since the depositor could open a deposit and withdraw it the next day.
Risk 4 – Low rates from reliable banks.
The criteria for a bank’s reliability for a depositor are that it has a license to attract deposits, the bank’s entry into the deposit insurance system, the presence of positive ratings from international agencies, positive financial results (assets, liabilities, the share of individuals in liabilities). If the share of individuals in the bank’s liabilities is above 25%, then this means a high degree of dependence of the bank on borrowed funds, and if it decreases, this means an outflow of money.
See also: Fast payment system (FPS) – what is it and where does it work?
Banks with state participation ( Sberbank, VTB, Rosselkhozbank) offer depositors lower rates compared to commercial banks. They explain this by the fact that the bank is pursuing a conservative investment policy with a lower return, but with a guaranteed return on funds. Even if difficult times come, the state will still help with financing and will not allow bankruptcy or revocation of the license. By attracting customers in this way, the largest banks do not set a high percentage. Large depositors prefer to get less, but keep their savings in reliable banks.
5th reason – High rates without deposits and withdrawals.
Deposits are opened for a certain period, during which the bank offers the possibility of replenishment, withdrawal (partial or full). The more such options, the lower the percentage. The highest percentage is offered for deposits without any options. It turns out that to get the maximum income, the client can neither withdraw money from the deposit nor replenish it, ie limited financial freedom.
If there is a possibility of early withdrawal, but only with the loss of accrued income. This is not very convenient, because money can be needed at any time. In this regard, clients have to split the amounts, for example, part of the funds is placed on a deposit with an increased interest without the possibility of early termination, and part on a card or current account so that you can withdraw money at any time.
Term deposits suggest the possibility of prolongation after the expiration date. Prolongation takes place on the terms that are in effect at the time of the expiration of the deposit.
Thus, bank deposits have pros and cons. This is a conservative investment option with minimal risks and minimal income, which saves funds, but in no way contributes to their increase and accumulation.
If you decide to open a deposit
If you decide to open a deposit, then it is better to look not towards traditional deposits, but income cards. Funds on them are also protected by the law on deposit insurance. As a tip, we recommend opening a Tinkoff Black card